Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case of Perozo et al. v. Venezuela Judgment of January 28, 2009 (Preliminary Objections, Merits, Reparations, and Costs) In the case of Perozo et al. v. Venezuela, The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter, the “Inter-American Court”, the “Court” or the “Tribunal”) composed of the following judges:1 Cecilia Medina-Quiroga, President; Sergio García Ramírez, Judge Manuel E. Ventura Robles, Judge; Leonardo A. Franco, Judge; Margarette May Macaulay, Judge; Rhadys Abreu-Blondet, Judge and Pier Paolo Pasceri Scaramuzza, Judge ad hoc; Also present: Pablo Saavedra Alessandri, Secretary Emilia Segares Rodríguez, Deputy Secretary, Pursuant to Articles 62(3) and 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter, the “Convention” or the “American Convention”) and Articles 29, 31, 56 and 58 of the Rules of Procedure of the Court (hereinafter, the “Rules of Procedure”) delivers the present Judgment. I INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE AND PURPOSE OF THE APPLICATION 1. On April 12, 2007 in accordance with Articles 51 and 61 of the American Convention, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter, the "Commission" or the "Inter-American Commission") submitted an application to the Court against the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (hereinafter, the "State" or "Venezuela") in relation to the case N° 12.442, originating in petition 487/03 forwarded to the Secretariat of the Commission on June 27, 2003 by Gabriela Perozo, Aloys Marín, Efraín Henríquez, Oscar Dávila Pérez, Yesenia Thais Balza Bolívar, Carlos Quintero, Felipe Antonio Lugo Durán, Alfredo José Peña Isaya, Beatriz Adrián, Jorge Manuel Paz Paz, Mayela León Rodríguez, Richard Alexis López 1 Judge Diego García-Sayán disqualified himself from hearing the instant case (infra para. 9 and 35 to 37).