Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case of El Amparo v. Venezuela Judgment of January 18, 1995 (Merits) In the El Amparo Case, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, composed of the following judges(* ): Héctor Fix-Zamudio, President Hernán Salgado-Pesantes, Vice President Alejandro Montiel-Argüello, Judge Máximo Pacheco-Gómez, Judge Antônio A. Cançado Trindade, Judge; also present: Manuel E. Ventura-Robles, Secretary, and Ana María Reina, Deputy Secretary delivers the following judgment pursuant to Articles 45 and 46 of the Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter "the Rules of Procedure") on the instant case submitted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter "the Commission" or "the Inter-American Commission") against the Republic of Venezuela (hereinafter "the Government" or "Venezuela"). I 1. This case was submitted to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter "the Court" or "the Inter-American Court") by the Inter-American Commission by note of January 14, 1994, which was accompanied by Report Nº 29/93 of October 12, 1993. It originated in a petition (Nº 10.602) against Venezuela lodged with the Secretariat of the Commission on August 10, 1990. 2. The Commission submitted this case in order for the Court to determine whether there had been a violation, by the Government, of the following Articles of the American Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter "the Convention" or "the American Convention"): 2 (Domestic Legal Effects); 4 (Right to Life); 5 (Right to Humane Treatment); 8(1) (Right to a Fair Trial); 24 (Right to Equal Protection); 25 (Right to Judicial Protection), and all of the above in relation to Article 1(1) (Obligation to Respect Rights) of the same Convention, for the deaths of (*) Judge Oliver Jackman abstained from hearing this case due to his previous participation in several stages of the case while it was being examined by the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights.