Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case of the Caracazo v. Venezuela Judgment of 11 November 1999 (Merits) In the Caracazo case, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter “the Inter-American Court” or “the Court”), composed of the following Judges (∗): Antônio A. Cançado Trindade, President; Máximo Pacheco-Gómez, Vice-President; Hernán Salgado-Pesantes, Judge; Oliver Jackman, Judge; and Carlos Vicente de Roux-Rengifo, Judge; also present: Manuel E. Ventura-Robles, Secretary; and Renzo Pomi, Deputy Secretary pursuant to Articles 55 and 57 of the Rules of Procedure of the Court (hereinafter “the Rules of Procedure”), delivers the following judgment in the instant case, submitted by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter “the Commission” or “the Inter-American Commission”) against the Republic of Venezuela (hereinafter “Venezuela” or “the State”). I INTRODUCTION OF THE CASE 1. On June 7, 1999, the Commission submitted the application in this case to the Court, invoking Articles 50 and 51 of the American Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter “the Convention” or “the American Convention”) and Articles 32 et seq. of the Rules of Procedure. The Commission presented the application so that the Court might decide if Venezuela had violated Articles 4.1 (Right to Life), 5 (Right to Humane Treatment), 7 (Right to Personal Liberty), 8.1 (Right to a Fair Trial), 25.1 and 25.2.a. (Right to Judicial Protection) and 27.3 (Suspension of Guarantees) in relation to Articles 1.1 (Obligation to Respect Rights) and 2 (Domestic Legal Effects) of the American Convention, owing to events that occurred during the months of February and March 1989, in Caracas, Venezuela. * The Judges Alirio Abreu Burelli and Sergio García Ramírez informed the Court that, owing to circumstances beyond their control, they were unable to attend the public hearing on November 10, 1999, the final deliberations and the signature of this judgment.