INTER-AMERICAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE OF IBSEN CÁRDENAS AND IBSEN PEÑA V. BOLIVIA JUDGMENT OF SEPTEMBER 1, 2010 (Merits, Reparations, and Costs) In the case of Ibsen Cárdenas and Ibsen Peña, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter, the “Inter-American Court,” “the Court,” or “the Tribunal”), composed of the following judges: Diego García-Sayán, President; Leonardo Franco, Vice-President; Manuel E. Ventura Robles, Judge; Margarette May Macaulay, Judge; Rhadys Abreu Blondet, Judge; Alberto Pérez Pérez, Judge; and Eduardo Vio Grossi, Judge; also present: Pablo Saavedra Alessandri, Secretary, and Emilia Segares Rodríguez, Deputy Secretary, pursuant to Articles 62(3) and 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter, “the Convention” or “the American Convention”) and Articles 30, 32, 59, and 61 of the Court’s Rules of Procedure1 (hereinafter, “the Rules of Procedure”), delivers this Judgment. I INTRODUCTION OF THE CASE AND PURPOSE OF THE APPLICATION 1. On May 12, 2009, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter, “the Commission” or “the Inter-American Commission”) filed, pursuant to Articles 51 and 61 of the Convention, an application against the Plurinational State of Bolivia (hereinafter, “the State” or “Bolivia”), originating the instant case. The initial petition was lodged with the Commission on September 26, 2003. On October 12, 2005, the Inter-American Commission adopted Report N° 46/05, which declared the petition admissible. Afterwards, on October 31, 2008, the Commission adopted its Report on the Merits N° 93/08 under 1 In accordance with Article 79(1) of the Court’s Rules of Procedure in force, "[c]ontentious cases which have been submitted for the consideration of the Court before January 1, 2010, will continue to be processed, until the issuance of a judgment, in accordance to the previous Rules of Procedure.” Thus, the Rules of Procedure of the Court mentioned in this Judgment are those approved by the Tribunal during its XLIX Regular Period of Sessions, held from November 16 to 25, 2000, and partially amended during its LXXXII Regular Period of Sessions, held from January 19 to 31, 2009.