CASE OF THE KALIÑA AND LOKONO PEOPLES v. SURINAME TABLE OF CONTENTS I INTRODUCTION OF THE CASE AND PURPOSE OF THE DISPUTE .............................................. 4 II PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COURT ....................................................................................... 7 III JURISDICTION .................................................................................................................. 10 IV EVIDENCE ........................................................................................................................... 10 A. Documentary, testimonial and expert evidence .................................................................... 10 B. Admission of the evidence ................................................................................................. 11 B.1 Admission of the documentary evidence ........................................................................... 11 B.2 Admission of the testimonial and expert evidence .............................................................. 12 C. Assessment of the evidence .............................................................................................. 12 V FACTS .................................................................................................................................. 13 A. The Kaliña and Lokono peoples .......................................................................................... 13 B. Maroon settlements in the territory claimed as ancestral by the Kaliña and Lokono peoples ....... 16 C. The indigenous peoples under the Suriname legal system ..................................................... 18 D. The steps taken by the indigenous peoples to obtain recognition of their rights ........................ 19 D.1 Steps taken prior to the acceptance of the Court’s jurisdiction (November 12, 1987) ............. 19 D.2 Steps taken following the acceptance of the Court’s jurisdiction (November 12, 1987) ........... 20 E. Creation of the nature reserves ......................................................................................... 21 E.1 The Wia Wia and Galibi Nature Reserves ........................................................................... 22 E.2 The Wane Kreek Nature Reserve ...................................................................................... 23 E.2.1 Consultation process ................................................................................................ 24 E.2.2 Bauxite mining activities ........................................................................................... 25 E.2.3 Other natural resource extraction activities ................................................................. 27 F. The urban subdivision project called "Tuinstad Albina" (“Garden City Albina”) .......................... 27 VI MERITS ............................................................................................................................... 28 VI-I RIGHT TO RECOGNITION OF JURIDICAL PERSONALITY (ARTICLE 3) IN RELATION TO ARTICLES 1(1), 2, 21 AND 25 OF THE AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS ............ 28 A. Arguments of the Commission and of the parties ................................................................. 28 B. Considerations of the Court ............................................................................................... 29 VI-II RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE PROPERTY (ARTICLE 21) AND POLITICAL RIGHTS (ARTICLE 23) IN RELATION TO ARTICLES 1(1) AND 2 OF THE AMERICAN CONVENTION ............................ 31 A. Arguments of the Commission and of the parties ................................................................. 31 B. Considerations of the Court ............................................................................................... 34 B.1 Interpretation of the right to collective property and participation in public affairs of the indigenous peoples in this case.............................................................................................. 34 B.2 The failure to recognize the right to collective property of the Kaliña and Lokono indigenous peoples .............................................................................................................................. 36 B.2.1 The right to collective ownership and the obligation to delimit, demarcate, grant title to, and ensure the use and enjoyment of the collective territory ................................................. 36 B.2.1.1 The failure to delimit, demarcate and grant title in this case ................................... 37 B.2.2 The right to request the restitution of the territory, because individual titles have been granted to non-indigenous and non-tribal third parties ......................................................... 39 B.3 Nature reserves in the traditional territory ........................................................................ 44 B.3.1 The alleged persistence of the nature reserve and the claims ........................................ 44 B.3.2 Alleged restrictions for the indigenous peoples in the nature reserves ............................ 45 B.3.2.1 Compatibility of the rights of the indigenous peoples and the protection of the environment ................................................................................................................ 45 B.3.2.2 The alleged impact in the Galibi and Wane Kreek Nature Reserves .......................... 49 B.4 The right to collective property in relation to the mining concession within the Wane Kreek Nature Reserve ................................................................................................................... 53 VI-III RIGHT TO JUDICIAL PROTECTION (ARTICLE 25) IN RELATION TO ARTICLES 13, 1(1) AND 2 OF THE AMERICAN CONVENTION ............................................................................... 61 A. Arguments of the Commission and of the parties ................................................................. 61 B. Considerations of the Court ............................................................................................... 62 2

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