REPORT No. 48/13
NITZA PAOLA ALVARADO ESPINOZA, ROCIO IRENE ALVARADO REYES,
JOSÉ ÁNGEL ALVARADO HERRERA ET AL.
July 12, 2013
On June 26, 2011, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter “IACHR” or “the
Commission”), received a petition from the Center for Women’s Human Rights (CEDEHM), the Solidarity and
Human Rights Defense Commission (COSYDDHAC), Justice for Our Daughters (JPNH), all located in the city of
Chihuahua, and the Paso del Norte Human Rights Center (CDHPN), located in the city of Juárez, (hereinafter “the
petitioners”), in which the responsibility of the United Mexican States (hereinafter “the State” or “Mexico”) is
alleged for the presumed illegal detention on December 29, 20 09, and the later forced disappearance allegedly
perpetrated by members of the Mexican Army, of Nitza Paola Alvarado Espinoza, Rocio Irene Alvarado Reyes, and
José Ángel Alvarado Herrera (hereinafter “the presumed victims”), as well as the presumed lack of effective
investigation and due diligence concerning these facts. Furthermore, the petitioners allege that the State has
international responsibility for a series of human rights violations allegedly committed to the detriment of the
relatives of the presumed victims, as a consequence of the forced disappearance of their family members and the
actions taken to ascertain their whereabouts.
In view of the facts alleged, the petitioners argue that, with regard to the presumed victims Nitza
Paola Alvarado Espinoza, Rocio Irene Alvarado Reyes, and José Ángel Alvarado Herrera, the Mexican State is
responsible for the violation of the rights firmly enshrined in Articles 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 25 of the American
Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter “Convention” or “American Convention,” all relating to Article 1.1 and 2
of that international instrument; Articles I, II, IX and XIX of the Inter-American Convention on Forced
Disappearance of Persons (hereinafter “ICFDP”), and, specifically concerning Nitza Paola Alvarado Espinoza and
Rocio Irene Alvarado Reyes, Articles 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 of the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention,
Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (hereinafter “Convention of Belém do Pará”). With regard
to the relatives of Nitza Paola Alvarado Espinoza, Rocio Irene Alvarado Reyes, and José Ángel Alvarado Herrera, the
petitioners argue that the Mexican State is responsible for the violation of the rights enshrined in Articles 5, 8 and
25 of the American Convention, all with regard to Articles 1.1 and 2 of that international instrument and, in
accordance with Article I.a and I.b of the ICFDP, with regard to their right to know the truth. Specifically in relation
to the family members Jaime Alvarado Herrera, Sandra Luz Rueda Quezada, and their children, the petitioners also
allege violation of Article 11 of the American Convention. Regarding the requirement of exhaustion of domestic
remedies, they allege exceptions stipulated in Article 46.2.a) and b) of the Convention.
The State requests that the petition be declared inadmissible inasmuch as it considers that
domestic remedies have not been exhausted because a regular domestic investigation is underway to elucidate
the facts and to ascertain the whereabouts of the presumed victims.
Without prejudging the merits of the case, after analyzing the positions of the parties, and
pursuant to Articles 46 and 47 of the American Convention, the Commission decides to declare this case admissible
Pursuant to Article 17.2.a of the Rules of Procedure of Commission, Commissioner José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez, a national of
Mexico, did not participate in the deliberations nor in the ruling of this case.
After the initial petition was submitted, in the brief dated December 24, 2012, the petitioners requested that the following persons
also be included as petitioners: Patricia Reyes Rueda in representation of her daughter Rocío Irene Alvarado; María de Jesús Alvarado Espinoza
in representation of her sister Nitza Paola Alvarado, and Rosa Olivia Alvarado Herrera, in representation of her brother José Ángel Alvarado