Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Case of Baena-Ricardo et al. v. Panama
Judgment of February 2, 2001
(Merits, Reparations and Costs)

In the Baena Ricardo et al. case,
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter the “Court,” the “InterAmerican Court,” or the “Tribunal”), composed of the following judges:
Antônio A. Cançado Trindade, President
Máximo Pacheco-Gómez, Vice-President
Hernán Salgado-Pesantes, Judge
Oliver Jackman, Judge
Alirio Abreu-Burelli, Judge
Sergio García-Ramírez, Judge, and
Carlos Vicente de-Roux-Rengifo, Judge
also present,
Manuel E. Ventura-Robles, Secretary and
Renzo Pomi, Deputy Secretary
in accordance with Articles 29 and 55 of the Rules of Procedure of the Court
(hereinafter the “Rules of Procedure”), delivers the following judgment on the instant
On January 16, 1998, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
(hereinafter the “Commission” or the “Inter-American Commission”) referred to the
Court a complaint against the Republic of Panama (hereinafter the “State” or
“Panama”), which derived from petition number 11.325, received by the Secretariat
of the Commission on February 22, 1994. In its application, the Commission invoked
Articles 50 and 51 of the American Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter the
“Convention” or the “American Convention”) and Articles 26 et seq. of the Rules of
Procedure. The Commission submitted this case in order for the Court to decide
whether or not Panama had violated Articles 1(1) (Obligation to Respect Rights); 2
(Domestic Legal Effects); 8 (Right to a Fair Trial); 9 (Freedom from Ex Post Facto
Laws); 10 (Right to Compensation); 15 (Right of Assembly); 16 (Freedom of
Association); 25 (Right to Judicial Protection), and 33 and 50(2) of the Convention,
as a result of

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